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10e. Life During the Edo Period
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For the first time in centuries, Japan was relatively peaceful. The strict political and social policies of Ieyasu and subsequent shoguns ushered in a golden age of economic and cultural prosperity.

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Ancient History
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Diagram/Illustration
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Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
11. Central and South American Empires
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In the 1500s, when Spanish conquistadors appeared, two vast empires, those of the Aztecs and the Incas, dominated Central and South America. Both possessed divine kings, both were fractured by internal dissent, and both quickly succumbed to the Spanish onslaught. The physical remains of all these cultures lay dormant for centuries, until science and curiosity demanded their exploration.

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Ancient History
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Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
11a. Blood of Kings: The World of the Maya
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The Maya were a collection of people clustered in city-states. What united them was an idea. For the Maya the world of ordinary living and the Otherworld populated by gods, ancestors, and monstrous things, were equally real. There existed three regions, intricately bound together: the heavens, the earth, and the waters of the Underworld.

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Ancient History
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Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
11b. Deciphering Maya Glyphs
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In the past 25 years archaeologists have learned to read what the Mayas wrote. Today we know the names of kings and queens, how they lived, and when they died, transforming our view of Maya culture.

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Ancient History
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Diagram/Illustration
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Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
11c. The Inca Empire: Children of the Sun
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The Inca called their empire Tahuantinsuyu, or Land of the Four Quarters. It stretched 2,500 miles from Quito, Ecuador, to beyond Santiago, Chile. Within its domain were rich coastal settlements, high mountain valleys, rain-drenched tropical forests and the driest of deserts. The Inca controlled perhaps 10 million people, speaking a hundred different tongues. It was the largest empire on earth at the time. Yet when Pizarro executed its last emperor, Atahualpa, the Inca Empire was only 50 years old.

Subject:
Ancient History
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Diagram/Illustration
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Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
11d. The Aztec World
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Huitzilopochtl, God of the Sun, was the Aztec principal god. He had an insatiable appetite for blood. Under his urging, the Aztecs rose from a band of primitive farmers to become the bloodiest civilization of the early Americas. Many Central America cultures indulged in human sacrifice. The Aztec practiced it on an industrial scale, sacrificing tens of thousands of victims each year.

Subject:
World Cultures
Ancient History
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Diagram/Illustration
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Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
11e. Clash of Cultures: Two Worlds Collide
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In the wake of Columbus' historic voyage in 1492, expeditions, especially from Imperial Spain, swarmed into Aztec territory. They came in search of gold and souls — gold to enrich the coffers of the Spanish king (and their own), and heathen souls to rescue for Christianity. Within a generation, America's ancient civilizations were crushed. Both the Aztec and Inca Empires collapsed after campaigns lasting just a couple of years. How did they fall so fast? Historians suggest many causes.

Subject:
World Cultures
Ancient History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
2a. "I Love Lucy"
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Lucy belonged to genus Australopithecus and the species afarensis, but she also belonged to the the hominid family (hominidae) to which humans belong. Although humans are of the family hominidae, we are not of Lucy's genus or species. We are Homo sapiens. How then, can Lucy be our ancient ancestor if we belong to a different genus and species? It's because humans and Lucy share a taxonomy up to the point of genus and species; there are many shared characteristics, but there are differences and these differences place humans in our own genus and species.

Subject:
Ancient History
Archaeology
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Independence Hall Association
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Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
2d. First Technologies: Fire and Tools
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People of the Stone Age did not have the luxury of turning on the TV and watching Tim "Rock" Taylor host "Tool Time" or Bob Vilastone giving home-building tips in "This Old Cave." Nor could they dial 911 when a fire threatened them. Rather, they had to invent tools and harness the power of fire. But it was their experiments in tool-making that ultimately led to TV, cell phones, and computers.

Subject:
Ancient History
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Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
3f. Women of Ancient Egypt
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Egyptian women could have their own businesses, own and sell property, and serve as witnesses in court cases. Unlike most women in the Middle East, they were even permitted to be in the company of men. They could escape bad marriages by divorcing and remarrying. And women were entitled to one third of the property their husbands owned. The political and economic rights Egyptian women enjoyed made them the most liberated females of their time.

Subject:
Ancient History
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Independence Hall Association
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Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
4. The Early Middle East
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In the ancient Middle East, many great civilizations rose and fell. The religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam each trace their origins back to this part of the world. All of these civilizations arose in the area known as the Fertile Crescent. The Fertile Crescent stretches from the Mediterranean Sea in the west to the Zagros Mountains in the east. It is bordered in the north by the Taurus Mountains and in the south by the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Desert. Its shape resembles a crescent moon.

Subject:
Ancient History
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Diagram/Illustration
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Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
4a. Life in Sumer
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Located in what the ancient Greeks called Mesopotamia, which literally means "the land between the rivers," Sumer was a collection of city-states that occupied the southernmost portion of Mesopotamia. Most were situated along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, lying just north of the Persian Gulf.

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Ancient History
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Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
4c. Hammurabi's Code: An Eye for an Eye
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Hammurabi is the best known and most celebrated of all Mesopotamian kings. He ruled the Babylonian Empire from 1792-50 B.C.E. Although he was concerned with keeping order in his kingdom, this was not his only reason for compiling the list of laws. When he began ruling the city-state of Babylon, he had control of no more than 50 square miles of territory. As he conquered other city-states and his empire grew, he saw the need to unify the various groups he controlled.

Subject:
Ancient History
Law
General Law
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
4d. Assyrians: Cavalry and Conquests
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Much of Assyria's history is closely tied to its southern neighbor, Babylonia. The two Mesopotamian empires spoke similar languages and worshipped most of the same gods. They were often rivals on the battlefield for influence in the ancient Middle East.

Subject:
Ancient History
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Diagram/Illustration
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Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
4e. Persian Empire
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Rather than destroy local economies for their own selfish gain, the Persians worked to increase trade throughout their kingdom. They standardized weights, developed official coinage, and implemented universal laws.

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Ancient History
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Diagram/Illustration
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Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
4f. Phoenicians: Sailing Away
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The Phoenicians lived along the Mediterranean coast in what is now Lebanon. They inhabited a number of different city-states, the most famous of which were Tyre, Byblos, and Sidon. These Phoenician places were often in conflict with each other for domination of the region. Because of this lack of cooperation, the Phoenicians were conquered and forced to pay tribute to the virtually every empire in the region, including the Egyptians, Hittites, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, and Greeks.

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Ancient History
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Independence Hall Association
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Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
4g. Hebrews and the Land of Milk and Honey
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The Hebrew's early contribution to humankind was not wealthy empires or groundbreaking technology. Rather, it was the revolutionary idea that there was only one god, a belief known as monotheism. This one Hebrew god was called Yahweh. To the Hebrews, Yahweh was all powerful and all knowing, yet beyond human understanding. The religion based around this god influenced the founding of Christianity and Islam.

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Ancient History
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Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
5a. Rise of City-States: Athens and Sparta
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Greece's mountainous terrain led to the development of the polis (city-state), beginning about 750 B.C.E. The high mountains made it very difficult for people to travel or communicate. Therefore, each polis developed independently and, often, very differently from one another. Eventually, the polis became the structure by which people organized themselves. Athens and Sparta are two good examples of city-states that contrasted greatly with each other.

Subject:
Ancient History
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Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
5b. Democracy Is Born
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In Athenian democracy, every citizen was required to participate or suffer punishment. This practice stands in stark contrast to modern democratic governments in which citizens can choose whether or not they wish to participate. In Athenian democracy, all citizens pulled their weight.

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Ancient History
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Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
5c. Gods, Goddesses, and Heroes
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The ancients Greeks were polytheistic — that is, they worshipped many gods. Their major gods and goddesses lived at the top of Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece, and myths described their lives and actions. In myths, gods often actively intervened in the day-to-day lives of humans. Myths were used to help explain the unknown and sometimes teach a lesson.

Subject:
Ancient History
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Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
5e. Art and Architecture
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The arts reflect the society that creates them. Nowhere is this truer than in the case of the ancient Greeks. Through their temples, sculpture, and pottery, the Greeks incorporated a fundamental principle of their culture: arete. To the Greeks, arete meant excellence and reaching one's full potential.

Subject:
Architecture and Design
Ancient History
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Diagram/Illustration
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Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
6. Ancient Rome
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The Roman Empire's tentacles stretched from England to Egypt, from Spain to Iraq, and from southern Russia to Morocco. More significantly, ancient Roman civilization thrived for nearly one thousand years. The influence of the Romans over all of those peoples over that span of time defies measure.

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Ancient History
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Diagram/Illustration
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Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
6b. Julius Caesar
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Julius Caesar was a man of many talents. Born into the patrician class, Caesar was intelligent, educated, and cultivated. An excellent speaker, he possessed a sharp sense of humor, charm, and personality. All of these traits combined helped make him a skilled politician.

Subject:
Ancient History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
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Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
6c. The Pax Romana
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The term "Pax Romana," which literally means "Roman peace," refers to the time period from 27 B.C.E. to 180 C.E. in the Roman Empire. This 200-year period saw unprecedented peace and economic prosperity throughout the Empire, which spanned from England in the north to Morocco in the south and Iraq in the east. During the Pax Romana, the Roman Empire reached its peak in terms of land area, and its population swelled to an estimated 70 million people.

Subject:
Ancient History
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Diagram/Illustration
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Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
6d. Life of the People
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During the Pax Romana, the wealthy built huge, lavishly decorated houses and usually had servants or slaves to tend to their every need. The average citizen worked hard and lived reasonably comfortably in modest housing. Despite the riches of the Roman Empire, the largest class lived in what can only be described as poverty.

Subject:
Ancient History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
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Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
6f. The Fall of the Roman Empire
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One of the many factors that contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire was the rise of a new religion, Christianity. The Christian religion, which was monotheistic ran counter to the traditional Roman religion, which was polytheistic (many gods). At different times, the Romans persecuted the Christians because of their beliefs, which were popular among the poor.

Subject:
Ancient History
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Diagram/Illustration
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Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
7a. Kingdom of Ghana
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Between the 9th and 11th centuries C.E., the kingdom of Ghana was so rich that its dogs wore golden collars, and its horses, which were adorned with silken rope halters, slept on plush carpets. Based on animal luxuries alone, it is no wonder that foreigners touted Ghana's kings as the richest men in the world.

Subject:
Ancient History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
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Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
7b. Mali: A Cultural Center
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What would life be like if a magician ruled the land? The history of ancient Mali gives us some hints. The founder of this West African kingdom was well known among his people as a man of magic with more than a few tricks up his sleeve.

Subject:
Ancient History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
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Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
7c. Benin and Its Royal Court
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Like many great civilizations, Benin's rise to power was filled with excitement and wonder, but its eventual social crises and political instability displayed the effects of greed, inhumanity, and love of power.

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Ancient History
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Diagram/Illustration
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Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
7d. Great Zimbabwe
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Discoveries of Chinese porcelain, engraved glass from the Middle East, and metal ornaments from West Africa provide evidence that Great Zimbabwe participated in a comprehensive trade network during the 13th and 14th centuries. Gold was probably its chief export and East African cities — especially those along the coast that had overseas connections — were most likely its primary trading partners.

Subject:
Ancient History
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Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
7e. Life on the Desert
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Traditional Bedouin are pastoral nomads, or wanderers who travel with herds of domesticated animals. They are constantly on the move, with no permanent camping place. Their staple belongings include camels and tents, and they frown upon agriculture and all types of trades and crafts. Any type of settled life is traditionally considered beneath Bedouin dignity.

Subject:
Ancient History
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Diagram/Illustration
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Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
8. South Asia: India and Beyond
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Peaceful coexistence of diverse ethnic, religious, and linguistic groups has historically been a hallmark of South Asian cultures. For this reason, many have referred to the region as a "salad bowl" of culture: a hodgepodge of different peoples, beliefs, and behaviors.

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Ancient History
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Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
8a. Early Civilization in the Indus Valley
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Although the intricate details of the early Indus Valley culture might never be fully known, many pieces of the ancient puzzle have been discovered. The remains of the Indus Valley cities continue to be unearthed and interpreted today. With each new artifact, the history of early Indian civilization is strengthened and the legacy of this ingenious and diverse metropolis is made richer.

Subject:
Ancient History
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Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
8b. The Caste System
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If a Hindu person were asked to explain the nature of the caste system, he or she might start to tell the story of Brahma — the four-headed, four-handed deity worshipped as the creator of the universe.

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Ancient History
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Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
8c. The Rise of Hinduism
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Not many things have endured without interruption or major transformation for over 5,000 years. Hindu traditions such as these are great exceptions. Arguably, Hinduism is the oldest religion on Earth.

Subject:
Ancient History
Material Type:
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Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022
8e. The Gupta Period of India
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The Gupta Period of India was not characterized by enormous material wealth or by elaborate trade activity. It was defined by creativity. Flourishing arts, fabulous literature, and stupendous scholars are just a few of the things that marked the period.

Subject:
Ancient History
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
Independence Hall Association
Provider Set:
Ancient Civilizations
Date Added:
04/27/2022